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The Ruben Flame Tube
Demonstration no.: 6
Purpose: To demonstrate that sound is made of pressure waves.
Summary: A metal tube is filled with gas which can leak out of small holes. The gas is lit and sound is sent into the tube by a loudspeaker.
Keywords: Waves, longitudinal waves, sound, standing waves, oscillations.
The Tippe Top
Demonstration no.: 79
Purpose: Demonstration of the very special rotational properties of the so-called "Tippe Top".
Summary: A "Tippe Top" is a small spinning top which will start out spinning as a normal top, but soon turns over and spins on the stem. This description will give a short, theoretical introduction and an extensive historical overview of the top.
Keywords: Conservation of energy, friction, angular momentum, torque, forces, equilibrium, center of mass, mechanics, gravity, rotation.
Measure the thickness of a hair
Demonstration no.: 87
Purpose: To measure the thickness of a piece of hair using a laser beam.
Summary: A laser beam (from for instance a laser pointer) is directed towards a piece of hair. This creates a diffraction pattern, from which the diameter of the hair can be measured.
Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation, refraction, diffraction, interference, light, optics.
Standing waves in a coffee cup
Demonstration no.: 92
Purpose: To demonstrate standing waves in a coffe cup and the influence of the handle on the frequency.
Summary: If you strike the side of a coffee cup across from the position of the handle, the cup will vibrate with a specific frequency. If you strike the cup 45 degrees from that position, the cup will vibrate with another frequency
Keywords: Damped oscillations, harmonic motion, sound, resonance, standing waves, oscillations, transversal waves.
Igniting paper with an overhead projector
Demonstration no.: 105
Purpose: To demonstrate focussing of light and heat.
Summary: The head of an overhead projector is removed and a piece of paper is placed in the focus of the light. The paper will burst into flames.
Keywords: Diffraction, interference, light, optics, heat, heat radiation.
Angular momentum brake for falling coffee cup
Demonstration no.: 113
Purpose: To demonstrate conservation of angular momentum.
Summary: A string is attached to the handle of a coffee cup. In the other end of the string, a paper clip is tied. The string is hung over a pencil, and the paper clip is released. Before the cup hits the ground, the string will wind around the pencil, stopping the cup.
Keywords: Acceleration, motion, friction, angular momentum, mechanics, rotation.
Mentos and Diet Coke explosion
Demonstration no.: 122
Purpose: To demonstrate an almost explosive phase change from dissolved CO2 to gaseous CO2.
Summary: A Mentos dropped into Diet Coke will cause the CO2 in the soda to rapidly form gaseous bubbles resulting in an explosion.
Keywords: Phase transition, surface tension, pressure, fluid dynamics.